A taster is someone whose job is to try different wines, teas, or other foods or beverages to check their quality. A food taster is a person who eats food prepared for someone else, to confirm that it is safe to eat them. Anyone who tastes beverages in this way is known as a cupboard. The person to whom the food is to be served is usually an important person, such as a monarch or someone under threat of murder or harm.
Epicurus, gourmet, sweet tooth, gourmet are those who enjoy eating and drinking. Epicure involves meticulousness and voluptuousness of taste. Gourmet involves being a connoisseur of food and drink and the demanding enjoyment of them. Gourmand involves an abundant appetite for good food and drink, not without discernment, but with less than that of a gourmet.
Gastronome implies that the history and rituals of haute cuisine have been extensively studied. You may know them more informally as taste evaluators, but sensory testers do much more than test foods. The Roman emperor Claudius died of poisoning in 54 AD, even though he hired a food taster named Halotus.